From the Activity log, select “Comments”, and you’ll get a chronological list of all your comments.
In addition, you can also request a download of your Facebook data, if you want to do some automated analysis or processing on it. You can do this from Account settings. It takes a while for the download to be ready. “Once your download is ready, [Facebook will] send an email to the email address listed on your Facebook account along with a link to your download.”
However, it’s quite possible neither of these methods provide the amount of likes on each of your comments. The description on types of provided data does mention that