In the early days of computing, each time an information system was needed it was ‘tailor made’ – built as a one-off solution for a particular problem. However, it soon became apparent that many of the problems information systems set out to solve shared certain characteristics. Consequently, people attempted to try to build a single system that would solve a whole range of similar problems. However, they soon realized that in order to do this, it was first necessary to be able to define how and where the information system would be used and why it was needed. It was then that the search for a way to classify information systems accurately began.
ITIL, formerly known as the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, is a set of practices for IT service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business. In its current form (known as ITIL 2011 edition), ITIL is published as a series of five core volumes, each of which covers a different ITSM lifecycle stage. Although ITIL underpins ISO/IEC 20000 (previously BS15000), the International Service Management Standard for IT service management, there are some differences between the ISO 20000 standard and the ITIL framework.
ITIL describes processes, procedures, tasks, and checklists which are not organization-specific, but can be applied by an organization for establishing integration with the organization’s strategy, delivering value, and maintaining a minimum level of competency. It allows the organization to establish a baseline from which it can plan, implement, and measure. It is used to demonstrate compliance and to measure improvement.
Since July 2013, ITIL has been owned by AXELOS Ltd, a joint venture between HM Cabinet Office and Capita Plc. AXELOS licenses organisations to use the ITIL intellectual property, accredits licensed Examination Institutes, and manages updates to the framework.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:i2p.packages/i2p sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install sigil
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:xiota/ppa sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install sigil
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mapreri/sigil sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install sigil
Though it is important to note that i2p.packages repository doesn’t contain only Sigil, and updating after adding it may upgrade other packages.
YouTube-mp3.org est le service en ligne le plus simple qui soit pour convertir des vidéos en mp3. Pas besoin de créer un compte, la seule chose qu’il vous faut est l’adresse (URL) d’une vidéo YouTube. La conversion est lancée dès que vous nous soumettez l’adresse de la vidéo, ensuite il vous suffira de télécharger le mp3 que nous aurons créé. A la différence d’autres services, l’intégralité du processus de conversion est effectué au sein de notre infrastructure, vous n’avez qu’à télécharger le fichier audio alors stocké sur nos serveurs. Ainsi, notre service est multi-platforme : vous pouvez l’utiliser sur votre Mac, un PC sous Linux ou même un iPhone. Toutes nos conversions sont effectuées en mode haute qualité avec un taux d’échantillonage égal ou supérieur à 128 kBit/s. Ne vous inquiétez pas, notre service est entièrement gratuit. Il nécessite approximativement 3 à 4 minutes par vidéo.
ConvertMeMp3.com is a free YouTube to MP3 converter. It allows you to convert and download a video from YouTube to MP3 audio online.
OpenCPU is a system for embedded scientific computing and reproducible research.
A vast array of software is available to support your podcasting requirements; some programs offer one stop integrated solutions to all your podcasting needs, while others fill more specific niches. However, every piece of software that you need in order to record and produce a professional, quality podcast is readily available free of charge.
Acquiring the Audio
No matter what software you choose to help create and produce your podcasts, you will first have to get your audio into the computer. How you choose to do this is entirely up to you, but is likely to depend on what level of audio quality you want and your budget. At the most basic level you could use your computer’s in-built microphone, but for a reasonable degree of quality you will want a semi-decent external microphone.
1. Audacity – Audio Recorder and Editor
2. WinLAME – Audio Encoder
Once your audio has been recorded and edited (preferably in WAV format) you will need to convert it into a suitable podcast format. The universally accepted audio file format for podcasts is MP3. WinLAME is an excellent piece of free podcasting software designed to convert WAV files into the podcast friendly MP3 format.
3. Mp3Tag – ID3 Tag Editor
Now that you have your podcast MP3 audio file and some suitable artwork for its cover, you will need to embed the artwork into the MP3 file and add some additional tags that can be displayed by the listener’s playback device.
ggplot2 is a data visualization package for the statistical programming language R. Created by Hadley Wickham in 2005, ggplot2 is an implementation of Leland Wilkinson‘s Grammar of Graphics—a general scheme for data visualization which breaks up graphs into semantic components such as scales and layers. ggplot2 can serve as a replacement for the base graphics in R and contains a number of defaults for web and print display of common scales. Since 2005, ggplot2 has grown in use to become one of the most popular R packages. It is licensed under GNU GPL v2.
On 2 March 2012, ggplot2 version 0.9.0 was released with numerous changes to internal organization, scale construction and layers. An update dealing primarily with bug fixes was released on 9 May 2012, incrementing the version to 0.9.1.
On 25 February 2014, Hadley Wickham formally announced that “ggplot2 is shifting to maintenance mode. This means that we are no longer adding new features, but we will continue to fix major bugs, and consider new features submitted as pull requests. In recognition this significant milestone, the next version of ggplot2 will be 1.0.0”.