Solved game

A solved game is a game whose outcome (win, lose, or draw) can be correctly predicted from any position, given that both players play perfectly. Games which have not been solved are said to be “unsolved”. Games for which only some positions have been solved are said to be “partially solved”. This article focuses on two-player games that have been solved.

A two-player game can be “solved” on several levels:[1][2]


Prove whether the first player will win, lose, or draw from the initial position, given perfect play on both sides. This can be a non-constructive proof (possibly involving astrategy-stealing argument) that need not actually determine any moves of the perfect play.


Provide an algorithm that secures a win for one player, or a draw for either, against any possible moves by the opponent, from the beginning of the game. That is, produce at least one complete ideal game (all moves start to end) with proof that each move is optimal for the player making it. It does not necessarily mean a computer program using the solution will play optimally against an imperfect opponent. For example, the checkers program Chinook will never turn a drawn position into a losing position (since the weak solution of checkers proves that it is a draw), but it might possibly turn a winning position into a drawn position because Chinook does not expect the opponent to play a move that will not win but could possibly lose, and so it does not analyze such moves completely.


Provide an algorithm that can produce perfect play (moves) from any position, even if mistakes have already been made on one or both sides.

Despite the name, many game theorists believe that “ultra-weak” are the deepest, most interesting and valuable proofs. “Ultra-weak” proofs require a scholar to reason about the abstract properties of the game, and show how these properties lead to certain outcomes if perfect play is realized.[citation needed]

By contrast, “strong” proofs often proceed by brute force — using a computer to exhaustively search a game tree to figure out what would happen if perfect play were realized. The resulting proof gives an optimal strategy for every possible position on the board. However, these proofs aren’t as helpful in understanding deeper reasons why some games are solvable as a draw, and other, seemingly very similar games are solvable as a win.

Given the rules of any two-person game with a finite number of positions, one can always trivially construct a minimax algorithm that would exhaustively traverse the game tree. However, since for many non-trivial games such an algorithm would require an infeasible amount of time to generate a move in a given position, a game is not considered to be solved weakly or strongly unless the algorithm can be run by existing hardware in a reasonable time. Many algorithms rely on a huge pre-generated database, and are effectively nothing more.

As an example of a strong solution, the game of tic-tac-toe is solvable as a draw for both players with perfect play (a result even manually determinable by schoolchildren). Games like nim also admit a rigorous analysis using combinatorial game theory.

Whether a game is solved is not necessarily the same as whether it remains interesting for humans to play. Even a strongly solved game can still be interesting if its solution is too complex to be memorized; conversely, a weakly solved game may lose its attraction if the winning strategy is simple enough to remember (e.g. Maharajah and the Sepoys). An ultra-weak solution (e.g. Chomp or Hex on a sufficiently large board) generally does not affect playability.

In non-perfect information games, one also has the notion of essentially weakly solved[3]. A game is said to be essentially weakly solved if a human lifetime of play is not sufficient to establish with statistical significance that the strategy is not an exact solution. As an example, the poker variation heads-up limit Texas hold ’em have been essentially weakly solved by the poker bot Cepheus[3][4][5].

Perfect play

In game theory, perfect play is the behavior or strategy of a player that leads to the best possible outcome for that player regardless of the response by the opponent. Based on the rules of a game, every possible final position can be evaluated (as a win, loss or draw). By backward reasoning, one can recursively evaluate a non-final position as identical to that of the position that is one move away and best valued for the player whose move it is. Thus a transition between positions can never result in a better evaluation for the moving player, and a perfect move in a position would be a transition between positions that are equally evaluated. As an example, a perfect player in a drawn position would always get a draw or win, never a loss. If there are multiple options with the same outcome, perfect play is sometimes considered the fastest method leading to a good result, or the slowest method leading to a bad result.

Perfect play can be generalized to non-perfect information games, as the strategy that would guarantee the highest minimal expected outcome regardless of the strategy of the opponent. As an example, the perfect strategy for Rock, Paper, Scissors would be to randomly choose each of the options with equal (1/3) probability. The disadvantage in this example is that this strategy will never exploit non-optimal strategies of the opponent, so the expected outcome of this strategy versus any strategy will always be equal to the minimal expected outcome.

Although the optimal strategy of a game may not (yet) be known, a game-playing computer might still benefit from solutions of the game from certain endgame positions (in the form of endgame tablebases), which will allow it to play perfectly after some point in the game. Computer chess programs are well known for doing this.

Solved games

Awari (a game of the Mancala family)
The variant of Oware allowing game ending “grand slams” was strongly solved by Henri Bal and John Romein at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands (2002). Either player can force the game into a draw.
See “Draughts, English”
The second player can always force a win.[6]
Connect Four
Solved first by James D. Allen (Oct 1, 1988), and independently by Victor Allis (Oct 16, 1988).[7] First player can force a win. Strongly solved by John Tromp’s 8-ply database[8](Feb 4, 1995). Weakly solved for all boardsizes where width+height is at most 15[7] (Feb 18, 2006).
Draughts, English (Checkers)
This 8×8 variant of draughts was weakly solved on April 29, 2007 by the team of Jonathan Schaeffer, known for Chinook, the “World Man-Machine Checkers Champion“. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play.[9] Checkers is the largest game that has been solved to date, with a search space of 5×1020.[10] The number of calculations involved was 1014, which were done over a period of 18 years. The process involved from 200 desktop computers at its peak down to around 50.[11]

The game of checkers has roughly 500 billion billion possible positions (5 × 1020). The task of solving the game, determining the final result in a game with no mistakes made by either player, is daunting. Since 1989, almost continuously, dozens of computers have been working on solving checkers, applying state-of-the-art artificial intelligence techniques to the proving process. This paper announces that checkers is now solved: Perfect play by both sides leads to a draw. This is the most challenging popular game to be solved to date, roughly one million times as complex as Connect Four. Artificial intelligence technology has been used to generate strong heuristic-based game-playing programs, such as Deep Blue for chess. Solving a game takes this to the next level by replacing the heuristics with perfection.


Unicode does not fit into 8 bits, not even into 16. Although only 110,116 code points are in use, it has the capability to define up to 1,114,112 of them, which would require 21 bits.

However, computers have advanced since the 1970s. An 8 bit microprocessor is a bit out of date. New computers now have 64 bit processors, so why can’t we move beyond an 8 bit character and into a 32 bit or 64 bit character?

The first answer is: we can!

A lot of software is written in C or C++, which supports a “wide character”. This is a 32 bit character called wchar_t. It is an extension of C’s 8 bit char type. Internally, modern Web browsers use these wide characters (or something similar) and can theoretically quite happily deal with over 4 billion distinct characters. This is plenty for Unicode. So –internally, modern Web browers use Unicode.

Unicode in chrome can be fickle, especially when working outside of the BMP.

So if browsers can deal with Unicode in 32 bit characters, where is the problem? The problem is in the sending and receiving, and reading and writing of characters.

The problem remains because:

  1. A lot of existing software and protocols send/receive and read/write 8 bit characters
  2. Using 32 bits to send/store English text would quadruple the amount of bandwidth/space required

Although browsers can deal with Unicode internally, you still have to get the data from the Web server to the Web browser and back again, and you need to save it in a file or database somewhere. So you still need a way to make 110,000 Unicode code points fit into just 8 bits.

There have been several attempts to solve this problem such as UCS2 and UTF-16. But the winner in recent years is UTF-8, which stands for Universal Character Set Transformation Format 8 bit.

UTF-8 is a clever. It works a bit like the Shift key on your keyboard. Normally when you press the H on your keyboard a lower case “h” appears on the screen. But if you press Shift first, a capital H will appear.

UTF-8 treats numbers 0-127 as ASCII, 192-247 as Shift keys, and 128-192 as the key to be shifted. For instance, characters 208 and 209 shift you into the Cyrillic range. 208 followed by 175 is character 1071, the Cyrillic Я. The exact calculation is (208%32)*64 + (175%64) = 1071. Characters 224-239 are like a double shift. 226 followed by 190 and then 128 is character 12160: ⾀. 240 and over is a triple shift.

UTF-8 is therefore a multi-byte variable-width encoding. Multi-byte because a single character like Я takes more than one byte to specify it. Variable-width because some characters like H take only 1 byte and some up to 4.

Best of all it is backward compatible with ASCII. Unlike some of the other proposed solutions, any document written only in ASCII, using only characters 0-127, is perfectly valid UTF-8 as well – which saves bandwidth and hassle.

Unicode chart

Three ways to enter Unicode characters in Windows

In Microsoft Word you can insert Unicode characters by typing the hex value of the character then typing Alt-x. You can also see the Unicode value of a character by placing the cursor immediately after the character and pressing Alt-x. This also works in applications that use the Windows rich edit control such as WordPad and Outlook.

First create a registry key under HKEY_CURRENT_USER of type REG_SZ called EnableHexNumpad, set its value to 1, and reboot. Then you can enter Unicode symbols by holding down the Alt key and typing the plus sign on the numeric keypad  followed by the character value. When you release the Alt key, the symbol will appear.

Another option is to install the UnicodeInput utility.

Microsoft Standard English (United States 101) Keyboard

Typing International & Special Characters using the <Alt> key and the right-side numeric keypad.
<Num Lock>key must be on!

NOTE* Not all characters are available in all font faces or in all browsers – the following table is based on the Times-New Roman or Arial font face and Internet Explorer v5.5. Consult the Microsoft Character Map to see what special characters are available for different fonts on your system. These special characters also work with the Microsoft English US-International keyboard.

Press and hold the <Alt> key while typing the numbers shown to make the special characters:
Alt 0128 Euro currency symbol Alt 0195 Ã A tilde
Alt 0131 ƒ Florin, Guilder or Gulden  Alt 0196
Alt 142
Ä A umlaut
Alt 0132 Base line double quote Alt 0197
Alt 143
Å A ring
Alt 0133 Ellipsis Alt 0198
Alt 146
Æ AE ligature
Alt 0134 Dagger Alt 0199
Alt 128
Ç C cedilla
Alt 0135 Double Dagger Alt 0200 È E grave
Alt 0136 ˆ Circumflex Alt 0201
Alt 144
É E acute
Alt 0137 Permille Alt 0202 Ê E circumflex
Alt 0138 Š S caron (hacek) Alt 0203 Ë E umlaut
Alt 0139 Left single guillemet Alt 0204  Ì I grave
Alt 0140 Œ OE ligature Alt 0205 Í I acute
Alt 0142 Ž Z caron (hacek) Alt 0206 Î I circumflex
Alt 0145 Left single quote Alt 0207 Ï I umlaut
Alt 0146 Right single quote Alt 0208 Ð Capital Eth
Alt 0147 Left double quote Alt 0209
Alt 165
Ñ N tilde
Alt 0148 Right double quote Alt 0210 Ò O grave
Alt 0149 Bullet Alt 0211 Ó O acute
Alt 0150 En dash Alt 0212 Ô O circumflex
Alt 0151 Em dash Alt 0213 Õ O tilde
Alt 0152 ˜ Tilde Alt 0214
Alt 153
Ö O umlaut
Alt 0153 Trademark Alt 0215 × Multiply sign
Alt 0154 š s caron (hacek) Alt 0216 Ø O slash
Alt 0155 Right single guillemet Alt 0217 Ù U grave
Alt 0156 œ oe ligature Alt 0218 Ú U acute
Alt 0158 ž z caron (hacek)    LINK Alt 0219 Û U circumflex
Alt 0159 Ÿ Y umlaut Alt 0220
Alt 154
Ü U umlaut
Alt 0161
Alt 173
¡ Inverted exclamation Alt 0222 Þ Capital thorn
Alt 0162
Alt 155
¢ Cent Alt 0223
Alt 225
ß Esszet
(sz ligature)
(sharp “s”)   LINK
Alt 0163
Alt 156
£ Pound sterling Alt 0224
Alt 133
à a grave
Alt 0164 ¤ Currency Alt 0225
Alt 160
á a acute
Alt 0165
Alt 157
¥ Yen Alt 0226
Alt 131
â a circumflex
Alt 0166 ¦ Broken vertical bar Alt 0227 ã a tilde
Alt 0167 § Section sign Alt 0228
Alt 132
ä a umlaut
Alt 0168 ¨ Umlaut (dieresis) Alt 0229
Alt 134
å a ring
Alt 0169 © Copyright Alt 0230
Alt 145
æ ae ligature
Alt 0170
Alt 166
ª Feminine ordinal Alt 0231
Alt 135
ç c cedilla
Alt 0171
Alt 174
« Left guillemet Alt 0232
Alt 138
è e grave
Alt 0172
Alt 170
¬ Logical Not sign Alt 0233
Alt 130
é e acute
Alt 0173 Soft hyphen (html: &shy;) Alt 0234
Alt 136
ê e circumflex
Alt 0174 ® Registered trademark Alt 0235
Alt 137
ë e umlaut
Alt 0175 ¯ Macron Alt 0236
Alt 141
ì i grave
Alt 0176
Alt 248
° Degree sign Alt 0237
Alt 161
í i acute
Alt 0177
Alt 241
± Plus or minus Alt 0238
Alt 140
î i circumflex
Alt 0178
Alt 253
² Superscript 2 Alt 0239
Alt 139
ï i umlaut
Alt 0179 ³ Superscript 3 Alt 0240 ð Small Eth
Alt 0180 ´ Acute accent Alt 0241
Alt 164
ñ n tilde
Alt 0181
Alt 230 
µ Mu or micro Alt 0242
Alt 149
ò o grave
Alt 0182 Paragraph (pilcrow) Alt 0243
Alt 162
ó o acute
Alt 0183
Alt 250
· Middle dot Alt 0244
Alt 147
ô o circumflex
Alt 0184 ¸ Cedilla mark Alt 0245 õ o tilde
Alt 0185 ¹ Superscript 1 Alt 0246
Alt 148
ö o umlaut
Alt 0186
Alt 167
º Masculine ordinal Alt 0247
Alt 246
÷ Division sign
Alt 0187
Alt 175
» Right guillemet Alt 0248 ø o slash
Alt 0188
Alt 172
¼ One quarter Alt 0249
Alt 151
ù u grave
Alt 0189
Alt 171
½ One half Alt 0250
Alt 163
ú u acute
Alt 0190 ¾ Three quarters Alt 0251
Alt 150
û u circumflex
Alt 0191
Alt 168
¿ Inverted question mark Alt 0252
Alt 129
ü u umlaut
Alt 0192 À A grave Alt 0253 ý y acute
Alt 0193 Á A acute Alt 0254 þ Lower case thorn
Alt 0194 Â A circumflex Alt 0255
Alt 152
ÿ y umlaut

Inserting characters by using hexidecimal Unicode values

If you know the *Unicode (hexadecimal) value of any character, you can use the “ALT X” keyboard shortcut to enter the character directly in your document in some programs such as Microsoft Word. This is particularly useful for all special characters that are not included in the list above (such as the R-hacek  Ř (0158 ALT X )). (You must press and HOLD DOWN the “ALT” key while pressing the X)

1. Type the 4-digit Unicode (hexadecimal) value of the character, including the leading zero if applicable. (Optionally, the value string can also begin with U+)
2. Press “ALT X” – this is the ALT key and the X key at the same time.
Microsoft Word, Wordpad and some other applications will replace the string to the left of the insertion point with the character you specified.
*(Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium. By using more than one byte to represent each character, Unicode enables almost all of the written languages in the world to be represented by using a single character set.)

Symbol Number
§ 21
space 32
! 33
# 35
$ 36
% 37
& 38
( 40
) 41
* 42
+ 43
, 44
. 46
/ 47
0 48
1 49
2 50
3 51
4 52
5 53
6 54
7 55
8 56
9 57
: 58
; 59
< 60
= 61
> 62
? 63
@ 64
A 65
B 66
C 67
D 68
E 69
F 70
G 71
H 72
I 73
J 74
K 75
L 76
M 77
N 78
O 79
P 80
Q 81
R 82
S 83
T 84
U 85
Symbol Number
V 86
W 87
X 88
Y 89
Z 90
[ 91
\ 92
] 93
^ 94
_ 95
` 96
a 97
b 98
c 99
d 100
e 101
f 102
g 103
h 104
i 105
j 106
k 107
l 108
m 109
n 110
o 111
p 112
q 113
r 114
s 115
t 116
u 117
v 118
w 119
x 120
y 121
z 122
{ 123
| 124
} 125
~ 126
Ç 128
ü 129
é 130
â 131
ä 132
à 133
å 134
ç 135
ê 136
ë 137
è 138
ï 139
î 140
ì 141
Ä 142
Å 143
É 144
æ 145
Æ 146
ô 147
ö 148
ò 149
û 150
ù 151
ÿ 152
Ö 153
Ü 154
¢ 155
£ 156
¥ 157
ƒ 159
á 160
í 161
ó 162
ú 163
ñ 164
Ñ 165
ª 166
º 167
¿ 168
¬ 170
Symbol Number
½ 171
¼ 172
¡ 173
« 174
» 175
α 224
ß 225
Γ 226
π 227
Σ 228
σ 229
µ 230
τ 231
Φ 232
Θ 233
Ω 234
δ 235
φ 237
ε 238
± 241
÷ 246
° 248
· 250
² 253

End of the alt key codes list.

Table A-1. Latin letters and ligatures

Name of character Alt-X Alt-n Word HTML Notes
Á A with acute c1 0193 Ctrl-‘ A &Aacute; Note 1
Ă A with breve 102 258 &#258;
 A with circumflex c2 0194 Ctrl-Shift-6 A &Acirc; Note 1
Ä A with dieresis c4 0196 Ctrl-Shift-; A &Auml; Note 1
À A with grave c0 0192 Ctrl-` A &Agrave; Note 1
Ā A with macron 100 256 &#256;
Ą A with ogonek 104 260 &#260;
Å A with ring c5 0197 Ctrl-Shift-2 A &Aring; Note 1
Ǻ A with ringand acute 1fa 506 &#506;
à A with tilde c3 0195 Ctrl-~ A &Atilde; Note 1
Æ AE c6 0198 Ctrl-Shift-7 A &AElig; Note 1
Ǽ AE with acute 1fc 508 &#508;
Ć C with acute 106 262 &#262;
Č C with caron 10c 268 &#268;
Ç C with cedilla c7 0199 Ctrl-, C &Ccedil;
Ĉ C with circumflex 108 264 &#264;
Ċ C with dot above 10a 266 &#266;
Ď D with caron 10e 270 &#270;
Đ D with stroke 110 272 &#272; Croatian
Ð Eth d0 0208 Ctrl-‘ D &ETH; Icelandic
É E with acute c9 0201 Ctrl-‘ E &Eacute; Note 1
Ĕ E with breve 114 276 &#276;
Ě E with caron 11a 282 &#282;
Ê E with circumflex ca 0202 Ctrl-Shift-6 E &Ecirc; Note 1
Ë E with dieresis cb 0203 Ctrl-Shift-; E &Euml; Note 1
Ė E with dot above 116 278 &#278;
È E with grave c8 0200 Ctrl-` E &Egrave; Note 1
Ē E with macron 112 274 &#274;
Ę E with ogenek 118 280 &#280;
Ğ G with breve 11e 286 &#286;
Ģ G with cedilla 122 290 &#290;
Ĝ G with circumflex 11c 284 &#284;
Ġ G with dot above 120 288 &#288;
Ĥ H with circumflex 124 292 &#292;
Ħ H with stroke 126 294 &#294; Maltese
Í I with acute cd 0205 Ctrl-‘ I &Iacute; Note 1
Ĭ I with breve 12c 300 &#300;
Î I with circumflex ce 0206 Ctrl-Shift-6 I &Icirc; Note 1
Ï I with dieresis cf 0207 Ctrl-Shift-; I &Iuml; Note 1
İ I with dot above 130 304 &#304;
Ì I with grave cc 0204 Ctrl-` I &Igrave; Note 1
Ī I with macron 12a 298 &#298;
Į I with ogonek 12e 302 &#302;
Ĩ I with tilde 128 296 &#296;
IJ ligature IJ 132 306 &#306; Dutch
Ĵ J with circumflex 134 308 &#308;
Ķ K with cedilla 136 310 &#310;
Ĺ L with acute 139 313 &#313;
Ľ L with caron 13d 317 &#317;
Ļ L with cedilla 13b 315 &#315;
Ŀ L with middle dot 13f 319 &#319;
Ł L with stroke 141 321 &#321; Polish
Ń N with acute 143 323 &#323;
Ň N with caron 147 327 &#327;
Ņ N with cedilla 145 325 &#325;
Ñ N with tilde d1 0209 Ctrl-Shift-` N &Ntilde; Note 1
Ŋ Eng 14a 330 &#330; Sámi
Ó O with acute d3 0211 Ctrl-‘ O &Oacute; Note 1
Ŏ O with breve 14e 334 &#334;
Ô O with circumflex d4 0212 Ctrl-Shift-6 O &Ocirc; Note 1
Ö O with dieresis d6 0214 Ctrl-Shift-; O &Ouml; Note 1
Ő O with double acute 150 336 &#336; Hungarian
Ò O with grave d2 0210 Ctrl-` O &Ograve; Note 1
Ō O with macron 14c 332 &#332;
Ø O with obliquestroke d8 0216 Ctrl-/ O &Oslash; Danish
Ǿ O with stroke andacute 1fe 510 &#510;
Õ O with tilde d5 0213 Ctrl-Shift-` O &Otilde; Note 1
Œ ligature OE 152 0140 Ctrl-Shift-7 O &OElig; Note 1
Ŕ R with acute 154 340 &#340;
Ř R with caron 158 344 &#344;
Ŗ R with cedilla 156 342 &#342;
Ś S with acute 15a 346 &#346;
Š S with caron 160 0160 &Scaron;
Ş S with cedilla 15e 350 &#350;
Ŝ S with circumflex 15c 348 &#348;
Ť T with caron 164 356 &#356;
Ţ T with cedilla 162 354 &#354;
Ŧ T with stroke 166 358 &#358; Sámi
Þ Thorn de 0222 &THORN; Icelandic
Ú U with acute da 0218 Ctrl-‘ U &Uacute; Note 1
Ŭ U with breve 16c 364 &#364;
Û U with circumflex db 0219 Ctrl-Shift-6 U &Ucirc; Note 1
Ü U with dieresis dc 0220 Ctrl-Shift-; U &Uuml; Note 1
Ű U with double acute 170 368 &#368; Hungarian
Ù U with grave d9 0217 Ctrl-` U &Ugrave; Note 1
Ū U with macron 16a 362 &#362;
Ų U with ogonek 172 370 &#370;
Ů U with ring above 16e 366 &#366;
Ũ U with tilde 168 360 &#360;
Ŵ W with circumflex 174 372 &#372;
Ý Y with acute dd 0221 Ctrl-‘ Y &Yacute; Note 1
Ŷ Y with circumflex 176 374 &#374;
Ÿ Y with dieresis 178 376 Ctrl-Shift-; Y &Yuml; Note 1
Ź Z with acute 179 377 &#377;
Ž Z with caron 17d 381 &#381;
Ż Z with dot above 17b 379 &#379;
á a with acute e1 0225 Ctrl-‘ a &aacute; Note 1
ă a with breve 103 259 &#259;
â a with circumflex e2 0226 Ctrl-Shift-6 a &acirc; Note 1
ä a with dieresis e4 0228 Ctrl-Shift-; a &auml; Note 1
à a with grave e0 0224 Ctrl-` a &agrave; Note 1
ā a with macron 101 257 &#257;
ą a with ogonek 105 261 &#261;
å a with ring e5 0229 Ctrl-Shift-2 a &aring; Note 1
ǻ a with ringand acute 1fb 507 &#507;
ã a with tilde e3 0227 Ctrl-Shift-` a &atilde; Note 1
æ ae e6 0230 Ctrl-Shift-6 a &aelig; Note 1
ǽ ae with acute 1fd 509 &#509;
ć c with acute 107 263 &#263;
č c with caron 10d 269 &#269;
ç c with cedilla e7 0231 Ctrl-, c &ccedil;
ĉ c with circumflex 109 265 &#265;
ċ c with dot above 10b 267 &#267;
ď d with caron 10f 271 &#271;
đ d with stroke 111 273 &#273; Croatian
ð eth f0 0240 Ctrl-‘ d &eth; Icelandic
é e with acute e9 0233 Ctrl-‘ e &eacute; Note 1
ĕ e with breve 115 277 &#277;
ě e with caron 11b 283 &#283;
ê e with circumflex ea 0234 Ctrl-Shift-6 e &ecirc; Note 1
ë e with dieresis eb 0235 Ctrl-Shift-; e &euml; Note 1
ė e with dot above 117 279 &#279;
è e with grave e8 0232 Ctrl-` e &egrave; Note 1
ē e with macron 113 275 &#275;
ę e with ogenek 119 281 &#281;
ƒ f with hook 192 0131 &fnof; Florin
ligature fi fb01 64257 &#64257;
ligature fl fb02 64257 &#64257;
ğ g with breve 11f 287 &#287;
ģ g with cedilla 123 291 &#291;
ĝ g with circumflex 11d 285 &#285;
ġ g with dot above 121 289 &#289;
ĥ h with circumflex 125 293 &#293;
ħ h with stroke 127 295 &#295; Maltese
í i with acute ed 237 Ctrl-‘ i &iacute; Note 1
ĭ i with breve 12d 301 &#301;
î i with circumflex ee 0238 Ctrl-Shift-6 i &icirc; Note 1
ï i with dieresis ef 0239 Ctrl-Shift-; i &iuml; Note 1
ì i with grave ec 0236 Ctrl-` i &igrave; Note 1
ī i with macron 12b 299 &#299;
į i with ogonek 12f 303 &#303;
ĩ i with tilde 129 297 &#297;
ı dotless i 131 305 &#305;
ij ligature ij 133 307 &#307; Dutch
ĵ j with circumflex 135 309 &#309;
ķ k with cedilla 137 311 &#311;
ĸ kra 138 312 &#312; Greenl.
ĺ l with acute 13a 314 &#314;
ľ l with caron 13e 318 &#318;
ļ l with cedilla 13c 316 &#316;
ŀ l with middle dot 140 320 &#320;
ł l with stroke 142 322 &#322; Polish
ʼn n preceded byapostrophe 149 329 &#329; Afrikaans
ń n with acute 144 324 &#324;
ň n with caron 148 328 &#328;
ņ n with cedilla 146 326 &#326;
ñ n with tilde f1 0241 Ctrl-Shift-` n &ntilde; Note 1
ŋ eng 14b 331 &#331; Sámi
ó o with acute f3 0243 Ctrl-‘ o &oacute; Note 1
ŏ o with breve 14f 335 &#335;
ô o with circumflex f4 0244 Ctrl-Shift-6 o &ocirc; Note 1
ö o with dieresis f6 0246 Ctrl-Shift-; o &ouml; Note 1
ő o with double acute 151 337 &#337; Hungarian
ò o with grave f2 0242 Ctrl-` o &ograve; Note 1
ō o with macron 14d 333 &#333;
ø o with stroke f8 0248 Ctrl-/ o &oslash; Danish
ǿ o with strokeand acute 1ff 511 &#511;
õ o with tilde f5 0245 Ctrl-Shift-` o &otilde; Note 1
œ ligature oe 153 0156 Ctrl-Shift-6 o &oelig; French
ŕ r with acute 155 341 &#341;
ř r with caron 159 345 &#345;
ŗ r with cedilla 157 343 &#343;
ś s with acute 15b 347 &#347;
š s with caron 161 0154 &scaron;
ş s with cedilla 15f 351 &#351;
ŝ s with circumflex 15d 349 &#349;
ſ long s 17f 383 &#383; Historical
ß sharp s df 0223 Ctrl-Shift-6 s &szlig; Note 1
ť t with caron 165 357 &#357;
ţ t with cedilla 163 355 &#355;
ŧ t with stroke 167 359 &#359; Sámi
þ thorn fe 0254 &thorn; Icelandic
ú u with acute fa 0250 Ctrl-‘ u &uacute; Note 1
ŭ u with breve 16d 365 &#365;
û u with circumflex fb 0251 Ctrl-Shift-6 u &ucirc; Note 1
ü u with dieresis fc 0252 Ctrl-Shift-; u &uuml; Note 1
ű u with double acute 171 369 &#369; Hungarian
ù u with grave f9 0249 Ctrl-` u &ugrave; Note 1
ū u with macron 16b 363 &#363;
ų u with ogonek 173 371 &#371;
ů u with ring above 16f 367 &#367;
ũ u with tilde 169 361 &#361;
ŵ w with circumflex 175 373 &#373;
ý y with acute fd 0253 Ctrl-‘ y &yacute; Note 1
ŷ y with circumflex 177 375 &#375;
ÿ y with dieresis ff 0255 Ctrl-Shift-; y &yuml; Note 1
ź z with acute 17a 378 &#378;
ž z with caron 17e 382 &#382;
ż z with dot above 17c 380 &#380;



Table A-2. Greek letters and tone marks

Name of character Alt-X Alt-n Word HTML Notes
΄ Greek tonos 384 900 ;␠ &#900; Note 1
΅ Greek dialytika tonos 385 901 W␠ &#901; Note 1
Α Alpha 391 913 A &Alpha;
Ά Alpha with tonos 386 902 ;A &#902;
Β Beta 392 914 B &Beta;
Γ Gamma 393 915 G &Gamma;
Δ Delta 394 916 D &Delta;
Ε Epsilon 395 917 E &Epsilon;
Έ Epsilon with tonos 388 904 ;E &#904;
Ζ Zeta 396 918 Z &Zeta;
Η Eta 397 919 H &Eta;
Ή Eta with tonos 389 905 ;H &#905;
Θ Theta 398 920 U &Theta;
Ι Iota 399 921 I &Iota;
Ϊ Iota with dialytika 3aa 938 :I &#938;
Ί Iota with tonos 38a 906 ;I &#906;
Κ Kappa 39a 922 K &Kappa;
Λ Lamda 39b 923 L &Lambda;
Μ Mu 39c 924 M &Mu;
Ν Nu 39d 925 N &Nu;
Ξ Xi 39e 926 J &Xi;
Ο Omicron 39f 927 O &Omicron;
Ό Omicron with tonos 38c 908 ;O &#908;
Π Pi 3a0 928 P &Pi; ≠ product
Ρ Rho 3a1 929 R &Rho;
Σ Sigma 3a3 931 S &Sigma; ≠ sum
Τ Tau 3a4 932 T &Tau;
Υ Upsilon 3a5 933 Y &Upsilon;
Ϋ Upsilon with dialytika 3ab 939 :Y &#939;
Ύ Upsilon with tonos 38e 910 ;Y &#910;
ϒ Upsilon with hook symbol 3d2 978 &upsih; ∉WGL4
Φ Phi 3a6 934 F &Phi;
Χ Chi 3a7 935 X &Chi;
Ψ Psi 3a8 936 C &Psi;
Ω Omega 3a9 937 V &Omega; ≠ ohm
Ώ Omega with tonos 38f 911 ;V &#911;
α alpha 3b1 945 a &alpha;
ά alpha with tonos 3ac 940 ;a &#940;
β beta 3b2 946 b &beta;
γ gamma 3b3 947 g &gamma;
δ delta 3b4 948 d &delta;
ε epsilon 3b5 949 e &epsilon;
έ epsilon with tonos 3ad 941 ;e &#941;
ζ zeta 3b6 950 z &zeta;
η eta 3b7 951 h &eta;
ή eta with tonos 3ae 942 ;h &#942;
θ theta 3b8 952 u &theta;
ϑ theta symbol 3d1 977 &thetasym; ∉WGL4
ι iota 3b9 953 i &iota;
ϊ iota with dialytika 3ca 970 :i &#970;
ΐ iota with dialytika and tonos 390 912 Wi &#912;
ί iota with tonos 3af 943 ;i &#943;
κ kappa 3ba 954 k &kappa;
λ lamda 3bb 955 l &lambda;
μ mu 3bc 956 m &mu; ≠ micro
ν nu 3bd 957 n &nu;
ξ xi 3be 958 j &xi;
ο omicron 3bf 959 o &omicron;
ό omicron with tonos 3cc 972 ;o &#972;
π pi 3c0 960 p &pi;
ϖ pi symbol 3d6 982 &piv; ∉WGL4
ρ rho 3c1 961 r &rho;
σ sigma 3c3 963 s &sigma;
ς final sigma 3c2 962 w &sigmaf;
τ tau 3c4 964 t &tau;
υ upsilon 3c5 965 y &upsilon;
ϋ upsilon with dialytika 3cb 971 :y &#971;
ΰ upsilon with dialytika and tonos 3b0 944 Wy &#944;
ύ upsilon with tonos 3cd 973 ;y &#973;
φ phi 3c6 966 f &phi;
χ chi 3c7 967 x &chi;
ψ psi 3c8 968 c &psi;
ω omega 3c9 969 v &omega;
ώ omega with tonos 3ce 974 ;v &#974;



Table A-3. Other commonly needed characters

Name of character Alt-X Alt-n Word HTML Notes
¹ Superscript one b9 0185 &sup1;
² Superscript two b2 0178 &sup2:
³ Superscript three b3 0179 &sup3;
½ One half bd 0189 1/2 &frac12;
¼ One quarter bc 0188 1/4 &frac14;
¾ Three quarters be 0190 3/4 &frac34;
One eighth 215b 8539 &#8539;
Three eighths 215c 8540 &#8540;
Five eighths 215d 8541 &#8541;
Seven eighths 215e 8542 &#8542;
Fraction slash 2044 8260 &frasl;
Presentational forms of Latin letters
ª Feminine ordinalindicator aa 0170 &ordf; Spanish
º Masculine ordinalindicator ba 0186 &ordm; Spanish
Superscript n 207f 8319 &#8319;
Letter-like symbols
Care of 2105 8453 &#8453;
© Copyright sign a9 0169 (c) &copy; AltGr-c
Estimated symbol 212e 8494 &#8494;
µ Micro sign b5 0181 AltGr-m &micro; ≠ mu
Ω Ohm sign 2126 8486 &#8486; ≠ Omega
® Registered sign ae 0174 (r) &reg; AltGr-r
Script small l 2113 8467 &#8467;
Trademark sign 2122 0153 (tm) &trade; AltGr-t
Script capital p 2118 8472 &weierp; ∉WGL4
Black-letter capital I 2111 8465 &image; ∉WGL4
Black-letter capital R 211c 8476 &real; ∉WGL4
Alef symbol 2135 8501 &alefsym; ∉WGL4
Currency symbols
¢ Cent sign a2 0162 Ctrl-/ c &cent;
¤ Currency sign a4 0164 &curren; Generic
$ Dollar sign 24 036 $ &#36;
Euro sign 20ac 0128 AltGr-e &euro; Note 2
French franc sign 20a3 8355 &#8355; Historical
Lira sign 20a4 8356 &#8356; Rare
Peseta sign 20a7 8359 &#8359; Historical
£ Pound sign a3 0163 &pound;
¥ Yen sign a5 0165 &yen; Also yuan
Quotation marks
Quotation mark 22 ” Ctrl-z &quot; ASCII
Apostrophe 27 ‘ Ctrl-z &apos; ASCII
Left doublequotation mark 201c 0147 Ctrl-` “ &ldquo; Note 3
Right doublequotation mark 201d 0148 Ctrl-‘ “ &rdquo; Note 3
Left singlequotation mark 2018 0145 Ctrl-` ‘ &lsquo; Note 3
Right singlequotation mark 2019 0146 Ctrl-‘ ‘ &rsquo; Note 3
« Left-pointing guillemet ab 0171 Ctrl-` < &laquo; Note 3
» Right-pointing guillemet bb 0187 Ctrl-` > &raquo; Note 3
Left-pointing single angle quotation mark 2039 0139 &lsaquo;
Right-pointing singleangle quotation mark 203a 0155 &rsaquo;
Double low-9 quotation mark 201e 0132 &bdquo; Note 3
Single low-9 quotation mark 201a 0130 &sbquo; Note 3
Single high-reversed-9 quotation mark 201b 8219 &#8219;
Hyphen-minus 2d 045 &#45; ASCII
Hyphen 2010 8208 &#8208; ∉WGL4
Soft hyphen ad 0173 &shy; Note 4
Nonbreaking hyphen 2011 8209 &#8209; ∉WGL4
Other punctuation marks
En dash 2013 0150 Ctrl-minus &ndash; Note 5
Em dash 2014 0151 AltGr-minus &mdash; Note 5
Horizontal bar 2015 8213 &#8213;
Horizontal ellipsis 2026 0133 AltGr-. &hellip;
¿ Inverted question mark bf 0191 AltGr-? &iquest; Note 6
¡ Inverted exclama-tion mark a1 0161 AltGr-! &iexcl; Note 6
Double exclama-tion mark 203c 8252 &#8252;
· Middle dot b7 0183 &middot:
· Greek ano teleia 387 903 &#903; Upper dot
Bullet 2022 0149 &bull;
Left-pointingangle bracket 2329 9001 &lang; ∉WGL4
Right-pointingangle bracket 2330 9002 &rang; ∉WGL4
Punctuation-like marks
& Ampersand 26 038 & &amp;
< Less-than sign 3c 060 < &lt;
> Greater-than sign 3e 062 > &gt;
_ Low line 5f 095 _ &#95;
Double low line 2017 8215 &#8215;
Overline 203e 8254 &oline; ≠ macron
| Vertical line 7c 0124 | &#124;
¦ Broken bar a6 0166 &brvbar;
Pilcrow sign b6 0182 Insert → &para;
§ Section sign a7 0167 Insert → &sect;
Dagger 2020 0134 &dagger;
Double dagger 2021 0135 &Dagger;
@ Commercial at 40 064 @ &#64;
\ Reverse solidus 5c 092 \ &#92;
# Number sign 23 035 # &#35;
Per mille sign 2030 0137 &permil;
° Degree sign b0 0176 &deg;
Prime 2032 8242 &prime; ≠ ‘
Double prime 2033 8243 &Prime; ≠ “
Spacing diacritic marks and similar charcters
´ Acute accent b4 0180 ´ ␠ &acute; Note 7
˘ Breve 2d8 728 &#728;
ˇ Caron 2c7 711 &#711;
¸ Cedilla b8 0184 Ctrl-, ␠ &cedil;
^ Circumflex accent 5e 094 ^ &#94; or: ^ ␠
¨ Dieresis a8 0168 ¨ ␠ &uml;
˙ Dot above 2d9 729 &#729;
˝ Double acute accent 2dd 733 &#733;
` Grave accent 60 096 ` &#96; or: ` ␠
¯ Macron af 0175 &macr; ≠overline
ˆ Modifier lettercircumflex 2c6 710 &circ;
ˉ Modifier letter macron 2c9 713 &#713;
˛ Ogonek 2db 731 &#731;
˚ Ring above 2da 730 &#730;
˜ Small tilde 2dc 0152 &tilde;
~ Tilde 7e 0126 ~ &#126; or: ~ ␠
Leftward arrow 2190 8592 &larr;
Upward arrow 2191 8593 &uarr;
Rightward arrow 2192 8594 &rarr;
Downward arrow 2193 8595 &darr;
Left right arrow 2194 8596 &harr;
Up down arrow 2195 8597
Up down arrowwith base 21a8 8616
Down and left arrow 21b5 8629 &crarr; ∉WGL4
Leftward double arrow 21d0 8656 &lArr; ∉WGL4
Upward double arrow 21d1 8657 &uArr; ∉WGL4
Rightward doublearrow 21d2 8658 &rArr; ∉WGL4
Downward doublearrow 21d3 8659 &dArr; ∉WGL4
Left right double arrow 21d4 8660 &hArr;
Mathematical symbols
Almost equal to 2248 8776 &asymp;
Angle 2220 8736 &ang; ∉WGL4
Approximately equal to 2245 8773 &cong; ∉WGL4
Asterisk operator 2217 8727 &lowast; ∉WGL4
Bullet operator 2219 8729 &#8729;
Circled plus 2295 8853 &oplus; ∉WGL4
Circled times 2297 8855 &otimes; ∉WGL4
÷ Division sign f7 0247 &divide;
Division slash 2215 8725 &#8725;
Dot operator 22c5 8901 &sdot; ∉WGL4
Greater-than orequal to 2265 8805 &ge;
Identical to 2261 8801 &equiv;
Increment 2206 8710 &#8710;
Infinity 221e 8734 &infin;
Integral 222b 8747 &int;
Left ceiling 2308 8968 &lceil; ∉WGL4
Left floor 230a 8970 &lfloor; ∉WGL4
Less-than or equal to 2264 8804 &le;
Logical and 2227 8743 &and; ∉WGL4
Logical or 2228 8744 &or; ∉WGL4
Minus sign 2212 8722 &minus;
× Multiplication sign d7 0215 &times;
Nabla 2207 8711 &nabla; ∉WGL4
N-ary product 220f 8719 &prod;
N-ary summation 2211 8721 &sum;
Not equal to 2260 8800 &ne;
¬ Not sign ac 0172 &not;
Partial differential 2202 8706 &part;
± Plus-minus sign b1 0177 &plusmn;
Proportional to 221d 8733 &prop; ∉WGL4
Right angle 221f 8735 &#8735;
Right ceiling 2309 8969 &rceil; ∉WGL4
Right floor 230b 8971 &rfloor; ∉WGL4
Square root 221a 8730 &radic;
Therefore 2234 8756 &there4; ∉WGL4
Tilde operator 223c 8764 &sim; ∉WGL4
Up tack 22a5 8869 &perp; ∉WGL4
Set theory symbols
Contains as member 220b 8715 &ni; ∉WGL4
Element of 2208 8712 &isin; ∉WGL4
Empty set 2205 8709 &empty; ∉WGL4
For all 2200 8704 &forall; ∉WGL4
Intersection 2229 8745 &cap;
∉ Not an element of 2209 8713 &notin; ∉WGL4
⊄ Not a subset of 2284 8836 &nsub; ∉WGL4
Subset of 2282 8834 &sub; ∉WGL4
Subset of or equal to 2286 8838 &sube; ∉WGL4
Superset of 2283 8835 &sup; ∉WGL4
Superset of or equal to 2287 8839 &supe; ∉WGL4
There exists 2203 8707 &exist; ∉WGL4
Union 222a 8746 &cup; ∉WGL4
Miscellaneous technical symbols
House 2302 8962 &#8962;
Reversed not sign 2310 8976 &#8976;
Top half integral 2320 8992 &#8992;
Bottom half integral 2321 8993 &#8993;
Miscellaneous symbols
White smiling face 263a 9786 &#9786;
Black smiling face 263b 9787 &#9787;
White sun with rays 263c 9788 &#9788;
Female sign 2640 9792 &#9792;
Male sign 2642 9794 &#9794;
Black spade suit 2660 9824 &spades;
Black club suit 2663 9827 &clubs;
Black heart suit 2665 9829 &hearts;
Black diamond suit 2666 9830 &diams;
Eighth note 266a 9834 &#9834;
Beamed eighth notes 266b 9835 &#9835;
Geometric shapes
Black square 25a0 9632 &#9632;
White square 25a1 9633 &#9633;
Black small square 25aa 9642 &#9642;
White small square 25ab 9643 &#9643;
Black rectangle 25ac 9644 &#9644;
Black up-pointingtriangle 25b2 9650 &#9650;
Black right-pointingtriangle 25b2 9658 &#9658;
Black down-point.triangle 25bc 9660 &#9660;
Black left-pointingtriangle 25c4 9668 &#9668;
Lozenge 25ca 9674 &loz;
White circle 25cb 9675 &#9675;
Black circle 25cf 9679 &#9679;
Inverse bullet 25d8 9688 &#9688;
Inverse white circle 25d9 9689 &#9689;
White bullet 25e6 9702 &#9702;
Space 20 032 &#32; space bar
No-break space a0 0160 Ctrl-Shift-␠ &nbsp;
Em space 2003 8195 Insert → &emsp; ∉WGL4
En space 2002 8194 Insert → &ensp; ∉WGL4
Four-per-em space 2005 8197 Insert → &#8197; ∉WGL4
Thin space 2009 8201 &thinsp; ∉WGL4
Invisible controls
Zero width non-joiner 200c 8204 &zwnj; ∉WGL4
Zero width joiner 200d 8205 &zwj; ∉WGL4
Left-to-right mark 200e 8206 &lrm; ∉WGL4
Right-to-left mark 200f 8207 &rlm; ∉WGL4

If you enjoyed this excerpt, buy a copy of Unicode Explained.



GIMP /ɡɪmp/[4] (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a raster graphics editor[5] used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, resizing, cropping, photo-montages, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.

GIMP is released under LGPLv3 and GPLv3+ licenses and is available for LinuxOS X, and Windows.

In Search of Lost Time

information technology

‘For a long time I would to go to bed early. Sometimes, the candle barely out, my eyes closed so quickly that I did not have the time to tell myself: I’m falling asleep.’  

Marcel Proust, In Search of Lost Time

Taking the code literally

The performers are reading the machine-code version of Marcel Proust’s novel. During the eight hours of a working day the humans are playing computer. For these purposes the text is first deconstructed into its individual parts — the letter and characters — which in turn are decoded into the Ascii-code — a code underlying digital text processing. Each letter is represented by an individual sequence of signs, consisting of zeros and ones. The performance is situated in an ironic lab situation and attempts to find beauty inside of the microstructures of the digital. During the act of reading, interpreting and presenting the work of art emerges, posing questions about the nature of the digital and the analogue, of work and art, time and beauty.

From the analog to the digital and back again

The sequence of events of the performance is described in this manual.
Starting from the ASCII-Version of Marcel Proust’s novel ‘A la recherche du temps perdu’ it is then re-coded into zeros and ones and then read by two performers alternately (one is reading the zeros, the other one the ones). The third person is CPU (the Central Processing Unit): She interprets the zeros and ones with the aid of an ASCII allocation table, cuts out the corresponding letter from the prepared sheets and turns it over to Display, who sticks it onto the wall panel.

After eight hours of performance about 250 characters can be processed.

Concept: Karl Heinz Jeron and Valie Djordjevic

A five minute extract from the performance “A la recherche du temps perdu” on 20 March 2006 in SPACE, London, during the xxxx festival 2006 ( Performance by Karl Heinz Jeron and Valie Djordjevic. More info on

We are using the electronic versions of the first three parts of ‘A la recherche du temps perdu’ from Project Gutenberg.

The performance is licenced under the GNU General Public License.


First performance on 19 November 2005 at the allgirls gallery in Berlin.


True: Valie Djordjevic
False: Karl Heinz Jeron
CPU: Heissam el-Wardany
Display: Dani Djordjevic

Second performance on 20 March 2006 in SPACE, London , as a part of the xxxxx event series.


True: Valie Djordjevic
False: Yair Wallach
CPU: Karl Heinz Jeron
Display: Elvina Flower

Third performance on 10 September 2006 in Blumberg, Vienna, during the paraflows festival.


True: Verena Brückner
False: Florian Kmet
CPU: Thomas Hörl
Display: Peter Kozek

QR codes

QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response code) is a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code) first designed for the automotive industry. More recently, the system has become popular outside of industry due to its fast readability and comparatively large storage capacity. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information encoded can be made up of any kind of data (e.g., binary, alphanumeric, or Kanji symbols)[1]

Malicious QR codes combined with a permissive reader can put a computer’s contents and user’s privacy at risk. QR codes intentionally obscure and compress their contents and intent to humans.[19]They are easily created and may be affixed over legitimate QR codes.[20] On a smartphone, the reader’s many permissions may allow use of the camera, full internet access, read/write contact data,GPS, read browser history, read/write local storage, and global system changes.[21][22][23]
Risks include linking to dangerous websites with browser exploits, enabling the microphone/camera/GPS and then streaming those feeds to a remote server, exfiltrating senstive data (passwords, files, contacts, transactions),[24] and sending email/SMS/IM messages or DDOS packets as part of a botnet, corrupting privacy settings, stealing identity,[25] and even containing malicious logic themselves such as JavaScript[26] or a virus.[27][28] These actions may occur in the background while the user only sees the reader opening a harmless webpage. [29]

ISO/IEC 27001

ISO/IEC 27001, part of the growing ISO/IEC 27000 family of standards, is an information security management system (ISMS) standard published in October 2005 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Its full name is ISO/IEC 27001:2005 – Information technology – Security techniques – Information security management systems – Requirements.

ISO/IEC 27001 formally specifies a management system that is intended to bring information security under explicit management control. Being a formal specification means that it mandates specific requirements. Organizations that claim to have adopted ISO/IEC 27001 can therefore be formally audited and certified compliant with the standard (more below).

Most organizations have a number of information security controls. However, without an information security management system (ISMS), controls tend to be somewhat disorganized and disjointed, having been implemented often as point solutions to specific situations or simply as a matter of convention. Security controls in operation typically address certain aspects of IT or data security specifically; leaving non-IT information assets (such as paperwork and proprietary knowledge) less protected on the whole. Moreover business continuity planning and physical security may be managed quite independently of IT or information security while Human Resources practices may make little reference to the need to define and assign information security roles and responsibilities throughout the organization.

ISO/IEC 27001 requires that management:

  • Systematically examine the organization’s information security risks, taking account of the threats, vulnerabilities, and impacts;
  • Design and implement a coherent and comprehensive suite of information security controls and/or other forms of risk treatment (such as risk avoidance or risk transfer) to address those risks that are deemed unacceptable; and
  • Adopt an overarching management process to ensure that the information security controls continue to meet the organization’s information security needs on an ongoing basis.

The key benefits of 27001 are:

  • It can act as the extension of the current quality system to include security
  • It provides an opportunity to identify and manage risks to key information and systems assets
  • Provides confidence and assurance to trading partners and clients; acts as a marketing tool
  • Allows an independent review and assurance to you on information security practices

A company may want to adopt ISO 27001 for the following reasons:

  • It is suitable for protecting critical and sensitive information
  • It provides a holistic, risked-based approach to secure information and compliance
  • Demonstrates credibility, trust, satisfaction and confidence with stakeholders, partners, citizens and customers
  • Demonstrates security status according to internationally accepted criteria
  • Creates a market differentiation due to prestige, image and external goodwill
  • If a company is certified once, it is accepted globally.

While other sets of information security controls may potentially be used within an ISO/IEC 27001 ISMS as well as, or even instead of, ISO/IEC 27002 (the Code of Practice for Information Security Management), these two standards are normally used together in practice. Annex A to ISO/IEC 27001 succinctly lists the information security controls from ISO/IEC 27002, while ISO/IEC 27002 provides additional information and implementation advice on the controls. The domains covered by ISO 27002 include

Organizations that implement a suite of information security controls in accordance with ISO/IEC 27002 are simultaneously likely to meet many of the requirements of ISO/IEC 27001, but may lack some of the overarching management system elements. The converse is also true, in other words, an ISO/IEC 27001 compliance certificate provides assurance that the management system for information security is in place, but says little about the absolute state of information security within the organization. Technical security controls such as antivirus and firewalls are not normally audited in ISO/IEC 27001 certification audits: the organization is essentially presumed to have adopted all necessary information security controls since the overall ISMS is in place and is deemed adequate by satisfying the requirements of ISO/IEC 27001. Furthermore, management determines the scope of the ISMS for certification purposes and may limit it to, say, a single business unit or location. The ISO/IEC 27001 certificate does not necessarily mean the remainder of the organization, outside the scoped area, has an adequate approach to information security management.

Other standards in the ISO/IEC 27000 family of standards provide additional guidance on certain aspects of designing, implementing and operating an ISMS, for example on information security risk management (ISO/IEC 27005).

The ISO 27001 adopts the process model “Plan-Do-Check-Act” (PDCA) which is applied to the structure of all the processes in ISMS.

BS 7799 was a standard originally published by BSI Group[1] in 1995. It was written by the United Kingdom Government’s Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), and consisted of several parts.

The first part, containing the best practices for information security management, was revised in 1998; after a lengthy discussion in the worldwide standards bodies, it was eventually adopted by ISO as ISO/IEC 17799, “Information Technology – Code of practice for information security management.” in 2000. ISO/IEC 17799 was then revised in June 2005 and finally incorporated in the ISO 27000 series of standards as ISO/IEC 27002 in July 2007.

The second part of BS7799 was first published by BSI in 1999, known as BS 7799 Part 2, titled “Information Security Management Systems – Specification with guidance for use.” BS 7799-2 focused on how to implement an Information security management system (ISMS), referring to the information security management structure and controls identified in BS 7799-2. This later became ISO/IEC 27001. The 2002 version of BS 7799-2 introduced the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle (Deming cycle), aligning it with quality standards such as ISO 9000. BS 7799 Part 2 was adopted by ISO as ISO/IEC 27001 in November 2005.

BS 7799 Part 3 was published in 2005, covering risk analysis and management. It aligns with ISO/IEC 27001.

Plan (establishing the ISMS)
Establish the policy, the ISMS objectives, processes and procedures related to risk management and the improvement of information security to provide results in line with the global policies and objectives of the organization.
Do (implementing and workings of the ISMS)
Implement and exploit the ISMS policy, controls, processes and procedures.
Check (monitoring and review of the ISMS)
Assess and, if applicable, measure the performances of the processes against the policy, objectives and practical experience and report results to management for review.
Act (update and improvement of the ISMS)
Undertake corrective and preventive actions, on the basis of the results of the ISMS internal audit and management review, or other relevant information to continually improve the said system.
An ISMS may be certified compliant with ISO/IEC 27001 by a number of Accredited Registrars worldwide. Certification against any of the recognized national variants of ISO/IEC 27001 (e.g. JIS Q 27001, the Japanese version) by an accredited certification body is functionally equivalent to certification against ISO/IEC 27001 itself.In some countries, the bodies that verify conformity of management systems to specified standards are called “certification bodies”, while in others they are commonly referred to as “registration bodies”, “assessment and registration bodies”, “certification/ registration bodies”, and sometimes “registrars”.The ISO/IEC 27001 certification,[2] like other ISO management system certifications, usually involves a three-stage external audit process:

  • Stage 1 is a preliminary, informal review of the ISMS, for example checking the existence and completeness of key documentation such as the organization’s information security policy, Statement of Applicability (SoA) and Risk Treatment Plan (RTP). This stage serves to familiarize the auditors with the organization and vice versa.
  • Stage 2 is a more detailed and formal compliance audit, independently testing the ISMS against the requirements specified in ISO/IEC 27001. The auditors will seek evidence to confirm that the management system has been properly designed and implemented, and is in fact in operation (for example by confirming that a security committee or similar management body meets regularly to oversee the ISMS). Certification audits are usually conducted by ISO/IEC 27001 Lead Auditors. Passing this stage results in the ISMS being certified compliant with ISO/IEC 27001.
  • Stage 3 involves follow-up reviews or audits to confirm that the organization remains in compliance with the standard. Certification maintenance requires periodic re-assessment audits to confirm that the ISMS continues to operate as specified and intended. These should happen at least annually but (by agreement with management) are often conducted more frequently, particularly while the ISMS is still maturing.

Asset Management

The asset management domain deals with analyzing and attaining the necessary level of protection of organizational assets. The typical objectives of the asset management domain is to identify and create an inventory of all assets, establish an ownership on all assets identified, establish a set of rules for the acceptable use of assets, establish a framework for classification of assets, establish an asset labeling and handling guideline. Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group. It may apply to both tangible assets such as buildings and to intangible concepts such as intellectual property and goodwill.

An asset is anything that has value to the organization. Assets can include infrastructure (e.g. buildings, store houses, towers etc.), physical assets ( computer equipment, communications, utility equipment, heavy machinery), software assets ( applications, software code, development tools, operational software etc.), information (database information, legal documentation, manuals, policies & procedures, organizational documents etc.), services ( transport, air conditioning, communications, utilities etc.), people (management, skills, experience etc.) and imperceptible (reputation, image etc.).

Asset management is a systematic process of operating, maintaining, upgrading, and disposing of assets cost-effectively. Organizations need to identify all assets and create and maintain security controls around them. For each asset a designated owner needs to be made responsible for implementation of appropriate security controls. When creating an asset management policy the organization needs to define the scope of the policy (which parts of the organization are covered under the policy), responsibility (who is ultimately responsible for the policy), compliance (is compliance mandatory or not, what are the guidelines to follow), wavier criteria (on what basis can someone ask for a waiver) and effective date (from when to when is the policy applicable).

  • Typical policy statements for Asset Management include:
  * All assets shall be clearly identified, documented and regularly updated in an asset register
  * All assets of shall have designated owners and custodians listed in the asset register
  * All assets will have the respective CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability) rating established in the asset register
  * All employees shall use company assets according to the acceptable use of assets procedures
  * All assets shall be classified according the asset classification guideline of the company

Asset management comprises of all the activities associated with ongoing management and tracking of assets some of which are as follows: asset discovery (physical & logical), create & maintain conclusive software library, create & maintain conclusive hardware stock, configuration management, physical asset tracking, software license management, request & approval process, procurement management, contract management, assessment on ISO 27001 and PCI controls, supplier/ vendor management, re-deployment & movement, retire & disposal Management, compliance to laws if applicable etc.

Asset Register

The asset register documents the assets of the company or scope in question. Typically all business functions are required to maintain an asset register of their business units. The asset register is required to contain, at a minimum, the following information about the assets: the asset identifier, the asset name, the type and location of assets; the name of the function and process that uses this asset, the asset owner, custodian and user and the CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability) ratings of the asset. Organizations can choose to additional information into the asset register as necessary for example for IT assets can have IP address as part of them etc.

For all asset registers, a primary person responsible for the asset register needs to be identified. Typically the business unit head or director is the owner of the asset register and recognized functional heads identified are asset custodians. The asset owner is accountable for the comprehensive protection of assets owned by him/her. The asset owner may delegate the responsibility of applying the relevant controls for the maintenance of the assets to an individual/ function referred to as the ‘asset custodian’. It is the responsibility of the asset custodian to implement appropriate security controls that are required for the protection of information assets. It is the responsibility of all employees and third party staff to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the assets that they use.

Asset Classification

Assets need to be classified in order to provide an appropriate level of protection for a certain category of assets. Information assets need to be classified in terms of its value, requirements and criticality to the business operations of the company. Typical company classification guidelines follow restrictive principles. Some of the common classifications criteria which are used by companies are given below:

RESTRICTED: The restricted level of asset information pertains to highly sensitive information to the company; which when disclosed would cause substantial damage to the reputation and competitive position of the company in the market. Its unauthorized disclosure could adversely impact its business, its shareholders, its business partners and/ or its customers, leading to legal and financial repercussions and adverse public opinion. Examples of restricted information are details of major acquisitions, divestments and mergers, business and competition strategy, sensitive customer, competitor, partner or contractor assessments, intellectual property information, law enforcement and government related information.

CONFIDENTIAL: This category refers to asset information that relates to individuals or is otherwise restricted only to authorized users, but if disclosed outside the company would not harm the organization, its customers, or its partners. This classification applies to any sensitive business information which is intended for use within the company. Examples of confidential information include customer information, negotiating positions, marketing strategy, personnel information, internal company memos and presentations.

INTERNAL This classification refers to asset information that is potentially available to all personnel within the company, but is not public. This can also include information that is restricted to a group or project within the company, but is not designated as “Private” or “Restricted.” Examples of internal information include product design information, system documentation, company employee details, company organizational charts, minutes of department meetings.

PUBLIC This classification refers to asset information that has been published or obtainable from a published source, e.g. the Internet. Example of public information include published marketing material, company public statements or announcements, published company performance information, published job vacancies.

Asset Labeling

All important and critical assets to the company shall be labeled physically / electronically as per the information labeling and handling procedures of the company. The asset owners are required to ensure that their assets are appropriately labeled (marked) for ease of identification. This may exclude information classified as ‘public’. For each classification level, the handling procedures should include the assets introduction; secure processing, storage; transmission and destruction. Classification level must be indicted wherever possible for all forms of physical / electronic information that are sensitive in nature. For example: subject of email stamped with “Confidential” etc.

Por empezar fuerte el curso hoy quiero compartir un enlace de gran interes para los dedicados al mundillo de la gestión de la seguridad entorno a la norma ISO 27001.

Dentro de mis protocolos de seguimiento de las normas 27001, 27002 y las publicaciones o comentarios entorno a ella utilizando las alertas de Google, hoy quiero compartir un par de enlaces que proporciona en un documento PDF una traducción no ofical al castellano de las normas ISO 27001 e ISO 27002.

Aunque los enlaces no aparecen refereciados en ninguna página principal de esta Web, Google la enlaza al buscar sobre controles de la ISO 27002.

Dado que puede ser de interés para el público hispanohablante disponer de una versión en nuestro idioma, comparto la url que Google proporciona por si es del interés de todos.
Ambos documentos aclaran que su uso es autorizado sólo para fines didácticos, objetivo que comparte también este blog.
Las urls donde se encuentran son:

How to delete books from Kindle

Posted by  on 12/11/2013 11:25:55 PM.

A significant advantage of eBook reading device is the capacity, even with a basic version of Kindle, you can hold thousands of eBooks with this handy size device. But every coin has two sides, after finishing and archiving more and more books, the storage space will become more and more disordered.

When you need to spend minutes to find the book you want to read, it is high time that you cleaned your ebook shelf up.

Identify Your Needs

Before cleaning your Kindle up, you should know what kind of deletion do you need.

1) You have downloaded too many books and finished most of them, now you want to make your Kindle looks clear and clean, delete those finished books from device but keep them in cloud.

• You are using Kindle device, like Kindle Touch, Kindle Paperwhite, Kindle Fire

• You are using Kindle app, like Kindle for Android, Kindle for iOS

2) You even don’t want to see those finished books in archive, want to delete them from Kindle Cloud.

• Delete books completely from your Kindle Cloud, delete books from Kindle archive

Click the links above you can jump to the part which can solve your problem.